You may wonder what D/d ratio is and what purpose it serves when lifting loads with different types of slings. After all, it can be confusing as there are multiple factors you have to take under consideration such as knowing the weight of the load, the sling's working load limit (WLL), and the load's center of gravity.
Identifying the D/d ratio when using any type of sling for a lift is critical, because if the lifting sling tightly bends over too much during the lift - the sling will get damaged. This could then lead to unsafe rigging practices. To have a safe lifting operation, continue reading more about D/d Ratio, and the types of slings we carry at US Cargo Control to identify which is right for your lift.
The term D/d ratio works as a simple mathematical equation where you're learning the diameter or distance of the load you're picking up. It is the ratio of the diameter (D) around the object which the sling might be bent, which could be a sheave or another object, then divided by the overall diameter (d) of the sling being used.
The diameter of the load divided by the diameter of the sling = D/d Ratio
For example, you're picking up an object that's 12 inches in diameter and you use a 3/8" chain to pick it up. This is 12" divided by 3/8" = 32, which 32 is the D/d Ratio. If the diameter is 10" and the diameter of the rope is 1/2, the D/d Ratio is 20.
The D/d Ratio has a tremendous impact on sling capacity when using slings like wire rope, chain, polyester round slings, and nylon slings. It can determine the sling's efficiency or capacity reduction, and allow you to make corrections before continuing the lift. If you see a tight bending of the sling, this means there's a smaller than recommended D/d Ratio.
Using a smaller D/d Ratio that's not recommended for your lift can aggravate the bending motion. This can result in fatigue, irregular wear, and increased deterioration. Once this occurs, you'd have to perform frequent inspections and go through costly wire rope replacements.
Each sling type has different strength efficiencies, which is why we included a table below that describes the efficiency of various sling constructions with standard D/d Ratios:
|Mechanically spliced, single-part slings||25 times rope diameter|
|Hand-Spliced, single-part slings||15 times rope diameter|
|Braided multi-part slings of 6 parts||25 times component rope diameter|
|Braided multi-part slings of 8 parts||25 times component rope diameter|
|Helically laid multi-part slings||25 times component rope diameter|
|Hand-tucked grommets and mechanically joined grommet||5 times sling body diameter|
When a sling is tightly bending around another object, there is a loss of sling capacity. As D/d Ratio decreases, this capacity loss becomes greater and the sling will become less efficient. There is a direct correlation between D/d Ratio and the efficiency of the sling (or rated capacity).
Not only is it important to understand the D/d Ratio of the lifting sling, but it's also equally important that fittings and rigging hardware used in connection points are adequately strong and spatially correct. For instance, if smaller, alloy shackles are used, the webbing edges can get damaged and sling efficiency is lowered due to the bunching of the webbing.
When not used correctly, this could result in bunching, and being crammed into a space will reduce sling efficiency and capacity. Basically, putting too many slings in an undersized shackle or another fitting can result in lost strength.
To understand what slings or fittings should you use for your job, give our team a call at 800-404-7068, and we'll be glad to assist you.
Now that you have an idea of what D/d Ratio means, continue reading on what lifting slings you should use that's worth the investment for your lifting situations.
Known as synthetic web slings or nylon web slings, our nylon lifting straps perform well for lifting breakable, delicate objects. Its heavy-duty synthetic material has great stretch and flexibility that help the slings mold to the shape of the load. Not only that, the nylon lifting sling’s material is treated to improve abrasion resistance and reduce wear, even in the most rigorous lifting applications.
If you’re depending on a sling that requires extra strength and durability, the chain sling is your best choice. The chain lifting sling is the strongest and most durable type of sling and is highly popular to use for heavy lifting operations. They will perform better than polyester round slings or nylon slings because they’re more durable, tolerant to hot temperatures, and cut-resistant.
Manufactured in the USA from a continuous loop of polyester yarn that creates exceptional strength, the round slings are versatile, pliable, convenient, and cost-effective. Because of their many benefits, you can use these in vertical, choker, or basket hitches, making them effective to lift a wide variety of cargo!
Known as steel cable or wire sling, these are more durable than synthetic slings and more cost-effective than chain slings. Wire rope slings are an excellent choice not only for lifting, but also for hoisting, towing, or anchoring loads. Its fabrication offers abrasion-resistance and heat-resistance, as they are made by weaving individual strands or wire around a core.
To understand what lifting slings you should use for any lifting operation, read 3 Factors to Consider When Choosing Lifting Slings.
We know the importance of quality when it comes to rigging supplies. We carry a variety of rigging hardware, as well as lifting beams and spreader bars that can lift heavy loads safely and efficiently.
Need a custom lifting sling? We can do that! We can customize a lifting sling to meet your specific needs.